"Oyo Empire." Naturally, other regional powers were also anxious to control trade routes, notably the Kingdom of Dahomey to the west. It stretched from parts of the Republic of Benin in the west to the southwest of the Federal Republic of Nigeria in the east. The Kingdom of Benin in the east was another formidable block to Oyo ambitions. By the late 16th century CE, the Portuguese were joined by the British, French, and Dutch, eager to obtain a slice of the lucrative regional trade. The major … This difference was not resolved until the alaafin Abiodun (reigned c. 1770–89) conquered his opponents in a bitter civil war and pursued a policy of economic development based primarily on the coastal trade with European merchants. Updates? The result of this loss was a domino effect that saw the Oyo Empire breaking up into smaller states which led to further competition and warfare between them. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. Oranmiyan founded the Oyo nation after establishing the bini dynasty, making him the first Alaafin (ruler) of the Oyo kingdom. The Oyo eventually succumbed to the expanding Islamic states to the north, and by the mid-19th century CE, the empire had disintegrated into small rival chiefdoms. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). This electronic bookcontains fifty (50) pages of History about Lanlate, one of the oldest, most noble and popular towns in Oyo State dating back to the era of the Old Oyo Empire” (Oyo-Ile). The kingdom of Oyo, also known as the Oyo Empire, is a West African monarchy, that at its peak, covered 270,000 square kilometres (1). Nairaland Forum / Nairaland / General / Culture / History Of The Oyo Empire (34116 Views) Lies About Oyo Empire / Yoruba's After The Fall Of Oyo Empire / Oyo Empire - 1300CE (2) Re: History Of The Oyo Empire by sammyjay3(m): 1:50pm On Jul 03, 2014; koastar: Where are you getting your history from? take a new look at the history of the Oyo Empire in the 18th century, and question the old view. The Nupe did conquer Old Oyo around 1535 CE and held onto it until the Oyo kings regained it around 1610 CE. Oyo empire was a yoruba empire covering distance over the southwest zone and the western half of northcentral zone of the today Nigeria. The little that is known is gleaned mostly from Yoruba legends and traditions. Of the 14 Kakanfo so far, the tenures of three of them who were military commanders considerably impacted the history of, first, the Old Oyo Empire, and by extension, the rest of Yorubaland. Gao & the Niger Riverby UN Photo/Harandane Dicko (CC BY-NC-ND). Oyo was invaded by the newly risen Fon of Dahomey, and soon after 1800 it was captured by militant Fulani Muslims from Hausaland in the northeast. That in itself is a significant opening statement in the political history of Oyo state. As with the states which prospered throughout the second millennium CE in the region, the Oyo Empire exploited local resources such as okra, yams, dates, palm oil, and fish. Web. The Oyo Empire was a powerful Yoruba state in the modern country of Nigeria. The Oyo king, the Alafin, had already been in conflict with both the state’s ruling council of elders, the Oyo Mesi, and the military leader, the bashorun (who also led the Oyo Mesi). Consequently, the kingdom expanded to include areas of the southwest and, in the savannah to the north, it acquired territory from its neighbours the Borgu and Nupe states. Oyo Empire(1600-1836) was a Yoruba empire, located in present day Nigeria and Benin. Although the Oyo did not form many large towns of note, rulers were able to forge a small empire thanks to their fearsome cavalry and archers - both a result of their commercial tentacles reaching as far north as the trans-Saharan trade routes. Oyo subjugated the kingdom of Dahomey in the west in two phases (1724–30, 1738–48) and traded with European merchants on the coast through the port of Ajase (now Porto-Novo). Culture, Politics, and Money Among the Yoruba, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Professor I.A. Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. (Oladayo, 2013). Page 1 of 50 - About 500 essays. The Oyo Kingdom, as with other states of the Yoruba people in the southern coastal area of West Africa (modern Nigeria), claimed descent from an exiled king of Ife (11-15th century CE). Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. The principal settlements of the Oyo were in and around Ife, the old capital of the Ife Kingdom, Old Oyo (aka Oyo Ile or Katunga), Kusu and Igboho. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Kingdom of Benin, located in the southern forests of West Africa... West Africa was one of the world’s greatest producers of... Salt from the Sahara desert was one of the major trade goods of... A map indicating the major ancient and medieval states in sub-Saharan... A map of the Oyo Empire which flourished in what is today southern... A TIME OF TROUBLES: Itan - Legends of the Golden Age, Book Two. After 1730 CE, Dahomey consequently accepted the political authority of Oyo and the latter claimed some of the Dahomey coastal conquests, giving the empire its own direct access to the sea via the tributary state of Ajashe (aka Porto Novo). c.1210– ORANYAN (Oranmiyan) Oyo-Ile was founded. Corrections? Oyo like all African states on the coast engage in the slave trade. It began in the 1300s in the West African savannah north of the tropical forests where other Yoruba peoples lived. The consequence of this political decline for the Yoruba peoples was catastrophic as they had largely avoided being made slaves up to that point but were now by far the majority of those captured and shipped to the Americas until the slave trade ended here in the 1850s CE. The Oyo Empire (1600 … Being in the savannah proved beneficial, as Oyo could use horses, which were unable to live farther south (due to the tsetse fly). Ancient History Encyclopedia. Revised 2nd ed. It's beginnings and structure. This great Empire was established in the 15th Century by Oranmiyan, grandson of Oduduwa (known as the father of the Yoruba’s). His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. The Oyo did not have everything their own way, however, as groups like the Ijesha inhabited forested areas where the Oyo cavalry could not be used effectively and the dangerous tsetse fly was present. The Oyo empire grew to be the largest of the Yoruba states, it rose through the outstanding organisational and administratyive skill of the Yoruba people. This situation and the loose control of vassal states meant that the Oyo Empire was really a house of cards awaiting the winds of change. This movement from Old Oyo to New Oyo effectively marked the end of the Oyo Empire. An impressive carved granite column from Ife stands 5.5 metres (18 ft.) tall and is known as the Opa Oranmiyan or ‘staff of Oranmiyan’. At present very little is known about the early history of the state. During the 17th century, Oyo began a long stretch of growth, becoming a major empire. Oyo empire, Yoruba state north of Lagos, in present-day southwestern Nigeria, that dominated, during its apogee (1650–1750), most of the states between the Volta River in the west and the Niger River in the east. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The people created a government that established its power over a vast empire. History has it that the empire was created by Oranmiyan, the grandson of Oduduwa,. The two protectorates joined in 1914 CE, became a federation in 1954 CE, and finally gained independence in 1960 CE. The decline was exacerbated by quarrels between the alaafin and his advisers; it continued throughout the 18th century and into the 19th, when Oyo began to lose control of its trade routes to the coast. ( ruler ) of the greatest Empire in history Limited is a registered trademark. Joined in 1914 CE, and Money Among the Yoruba people, wealth gained from trade and those favoured. Grew to become the most powerful of the Oyo kings regained it around 1610 CE of. 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